FDR – ministers, crashes, and cuts

A recollection of what has happened in the last seven years since Nepal became Federal Democratic Republic. First of the two part blog series has some facts with some negativity. Part two will be more difficult to write – as the hope is to get a better and brighter picture.

Prime Minister/s

Expectations were high even in 2008. Nepal came together and made history with Federal Democratic Republic country and the new constitutional assembly. Sure, we removed the monarchy in hope to better the political structure that we thought was more akin to feudalism under the then ruler. Introspection reveals a neglect and a disaster. Members of the second Constituent Assembly, elected in November, chose S Koirala of the Nepali Congress (NC) party on February 10 as the fifth prime minister since Nepal held its first democratic elections six years ago. Disclosure – I am inclined towards democracy, neutral towards the old monarchy, and despise the communism

#
Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office
Political Party
Took Office
Left Office
Days
1 Girija P koirala.jpg Girija P Koirala
(1925–2010)
28 May 2008 18 August 2008 83 Nepali Congress
2 Prachanda 2009.jpg Prachanda
(1954– )
18 August 2008 25 May 2009 280 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (Communist)
3 Madhav Kumar Nepal2.JPG Madhav Kumar Nepal
(1953– )
25 May 2009 6 February 2011 622 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist)
4 J.n (2).jpg Jhala Nath Khanal
(1950– )
6 February 2011 29 August 2011 204 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist)
5 Baburam Bhattarai.jpg Baburam Bhattarai
(1954– )
29 August 2011 14 March 2013 563 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (Communist)
6 Khilaraj regmi.jpg Khil Raj Regmi(1949– ) 14 March 2013 11 February 2014 334 Nonpartisan
7 Sushil Koirala.jpg Sushil Koirala
(1939– )(Acting)
11 February 2014 Incumbent 12 Nepali Congress

Source – Wikipedia Article

Seven prime ministers in seven years. Seven head of state, elected (and/or selected) to bring the country out of tragedy and darkness.  GPK was experienced, skillful and capable leader. However, he was inadequate and incompetent for the time, corrupt, greedy, and old.

Koirala ruled the longest as five-time prime minister in the democratic era after 1990, and by that token also made more mistakes than others, besides earning the animosity of the mainstream left which opposed him in Parliament and on the streets. Koirala can take some of the credit for the advances made during the dozen years of democracy till 2002, including the advance of community forestry, press freedom, the FM radio revolution and the brief interlude with local government. He was a true believer in open society. And yet, he was party to the ills that dog us to this day, from energy shortage, static economy and the impunity that has spread like wildfire. Clearly, Koirala was unable to come to grips with the newer challenges beyond pluralism, posed by identity assertion and economic globalisation, among others.

– – Kanak Mani Dixit (The Hindu – March 22, 2010)

The next four prime ministers were from Communist Parties. Though not a big fan, ours is one of the few nations which has the leftist participate and win democratic elections. Among the four PM, it was B Bhattarai from whom the expectations were pretty high. He failed. The remaining three communist leaders are mockery at best. In my personal view, Francis Underwood could learn a lot from PK Dahal on how to lie; and MK Nepal on how to become head of state even after loosing the election (plot line for season 4)

Autumn 2003, I found myself at the same university which shaped up Dr. Babu Ram Bhattarai, the chief Maoist ideologue. Now, popularly known as ‘Laldhwaj’ among his comrades, Babu Ram Bhattarai did his PhD in Urban Planning from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (1986). This famous Leftist bastion drew him to the communist fold despite his earlier fondness for BP Koirala and even GP Koirala. Taking a U-turn from his Nepali Congress leaning in JNU, he wrote a thesis, replete with leftist polemic and revolutionary rhetoric, now available as a book- “The Nature of Underdevelopment and Regional Structure of Nepal: A Marxist Analysis.” He has himself admitted, “I learnt the ABC of Marxism in Delhi’s JNU.”

– – Shrishti RL Rana (Kantipur Online – March 29, 2006)

Then came the chief justice of Nepal, who somehow managed to get the government going for sometime. and now we have a bachelor as prime minister. Nothing against his bachelorhood. Just too many incapable politicians around even in the new CA.

Plane Crash/es

Next on the list is Plane Crashes. Here is a list of accidents and incidents involving commercial and non-commercial [NC] aircraft in Nepal from 2008.

  1. 2008 October 8 – Yeti Airlines Flight 103 De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter crashes 60 nmi (110 km) from Mt Everest, Nepal, killing 18 of 19 people on board.
  2. 2010 August 24 – Agni Air Flight 101, a Dornier Do 228, crashes outside of Kathmandu, Nepal in heavy rain, killing all 14 people on board. 
  3. 2010 December 15 – A Tara Air de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter crashes in the Bilandu Forest near Shreechaur, Okhaldhunga District, Nepal, killing all 22 passengers and crew on board.
  4. 2011 September 25 – Buddha Air Flight 103, a Beechcraft 1900D, crashes in dense fog while attempting to land at Kathmandu Tribhuwan International Airport, killing all 16 passengers and 3 crew members
  5. [NC] 2011 October 18 – Royal Nepal Air Force, a Britten-Norman Islander,  Nepalgunj, performing an ambulance flight from Nepalganj to the capital city Kathmandu with a patient, one accompanist, two doctors, a nurse and a pilot. It crashed in unknown circumstances near Dhorpatan, killing all six occupants.
  6. 2012 May 14 – In the Agni Air Flight CHT, a Dornier Do 228 crashes near Jomsom Airport, Nepal during a go-around; of the 21 on board, 6 survived.
  7. 2012 September 28 – Sita Air Flight 601, a Dornier Do 228, crashes on the bank of the Manohara River, Kathmandu, Nepal after a bird strike, killing all 19 on board
  8. 2013 May 16 – Nepal Airlines Flight 555, a de Havilland Canada DHC-6, overruns the runway on landing at Jomsom Airport, Nepal, injuring seven people
  9. [NC] 2013 May 27 –  Cessna 208B Grand Caravan in Simikot,
  10. [NC] 2013 June 1 – Sita Air Flight – Simikot, Karnali,
  11. 2014 February 16 – Nepal Airlines Flight 183, a de Havilland Canada DHC-6, crashes near Khidim about 40 nautical miles south-west of Pokhara, Nepal, killing all 18 people on board.

Source – Bureau of Aircraft Accident Archive [NC] – non commercial flights

For comparison, India which is around 21 times the size of Nepal, and well with 1 billion+ population had 10 plane crashes from 2008 onwards (till 2014). Next neighbor, China had 7 accidents. Well to be honest, we can exclude the three airplane crashes in Kathmandu, TIA, for being one of the worst air strip for aviation and landing a plane. Still, We have one accident every 8 months. I am horrified to board a plane.

the Middle Class Migration

Before I begin ruining my thoughts of how I miss my friends and family, here is a small excerpts from New York Times, Feb 21, Opinion section. A very strong word – Social Mobility, and how the authors compared wealth and knowledge among the haves and not haves – around the world. Authors talk about Indian (Nepali) society and how our cast system and religion has prevented the social mobility. One question,  is why all the prime ministers in Nepal are from upper class?

When you look across centuries, and at social status broadly measured — not just income and wealth, but also occupation, education and longevity — social mobility is much slower than many of us believe, or want to believe. This is true in Sweden, a social welfare state; England, where industrial capitalism was born; the United States, one of the most heterogeneous societies in history; and India, a fairly new democracy hobbled by the legacy of caste. Capitalism has not led to pervasive, rapid mobility. Nor have democratization, mass public education, the decline of nepotism, redistributive taxation, the emancipation of women, or even, as in China, socialist revolution.

– – Gregory Clark (New York Times – Feb 21)

That said, here is the number of people in last decade (and so on) that have left Nepal and gone out for education for work. Most of them are from Middle Class, Upper Middle and few from the Elite Nepali Society. This probably is not selection bias, on my part, as I could very well not choose my family and friends from a broader group of society hierarchy based on economy. Disclosure – I represent the middle class family in Kathmandu. Coaxed  into more studies and less play – with broad shoulder that could carry a heavy back pack filled with books day-in-and-out.

Family

Four of my first cousins are not in Nepal, gone outside for education. I am not good with extended family (don’t remember them) but seven among all the second cousins I know are outside Nepal.

Friends

School, High School, and then School of Medicine – some of my close friends are outside Nepal pursuing higher educations and/or working with really good future prospects. Some in pursuing medicine, some in public health, and some in everything else, that I cannot understand. We had a small eight boys group in school which represented the small-dull-nerd group (seriously). Five of them are outside Nepal, settled and prospering. High School saw a huge magnitude of friend circle/s, but among the closest friends – 10+ are in USA, few in Europe and Australia. Then unto medical school, we had 45 of us, and around 6 are doing (or will soon) their residency here in USA.

Neighbors

Third on my list is how my friends, family and most of the neighbors have at least one of their family members aboard. I have a small map below, which puts my place in the center, and all the houses that surround the one that I live in. They all have one thing in common, either their daughter is married to someone outside Nepal, or son/daughter is outside Nepal for further education, or the whole family got into DV Lottery.

Migration of Neighbours

Keywords – D = Daughter, S = Son, m = Married, fam = familu, DV = USA DV Lottery,

e = Education, AUS = Australia, w = work

The middle class exodus is in the rise, specially after the 2006/7 pseudo(corrupt)democracy. This being the intellectual herd (personal opinion) Not saying that there aren’t any left in Nepal, but a big portion is going out. I know (hope) they will return one day to help build Nepal a better place. Disclosure – I myself, at the moment am in USA, till the end of April 2014. 

Somehow, I feel that our social culture dictates this. Any parents would want to see their kids grow up into better life. Educate them, and see them work in better position. When the times were difficult, my grandfather migrated from the hilly regions in Nepal to the fertile flat lands in Terai. My father migrated from this fertile agricultural society to the capital Kathmandu for service based economical model. Now I take this progress,  few steps further. Its either sending your kid to a rich, developed nation or coaxing him/her into a respected profession (by time/place)- a doctor, an engineer etc.

Power Cuts ~ the rolling blackouts

Seven years of FDR has done nothing to reduce the Power Cuts. Below is just a small list of power cuts that we had during the peak season of misery. I wanted a more elaborate 12 month graph for seven years, but I couldn’t find any materials on the Internet. I did mail to the NEA asking for the information. Putting this for another post.

  1. 2008 – Mid – February – 16 hours / day – Source – Reuters
  2. 2009 – January 11 – 16 hours / day – Source – Reuters
  3. 2010 – December 28 – 11 hours / day – Source – Ekantipur
  4. 2011 – January 11 – 12 hours / day – Source – Ekantipur
  5. 2012 – January 19 – 12 hours / day  – Source – BBC
  6. 2013 – January 19 – 14 hours / day – Source – Ekantipur
  7. 2014 – January 05 – 12 hours / day – Source – Nepalnews

Interesting Read //

  1. Nepal Logjam (Part 1 of 3): Civil War, Peace – Deal…
  2. The Unlikely Tale of How ARM Came to Rule the World.. 

Technology //

  1. Mobile ApplicationHamro Keyboard is a Nepali keyboard for all of us who love Nepali language. This is still work in progress, however, this looks promising.
  2. Two great news from Mobile World Congress 2014 – – Nokia X family of phones and Firefox OS built phones.
    • Nokia X – Sturdy Smart-phones at reachable Nepali economy.
    • Firefox OS build phones which in partnership with a Chinese Chip company – Spreadtrum Communications – hopes to built a 25 USD smartphones.

 

of Castes and Cows

I got curious on farming and cattle herding. Tried some internet search, asked around and here I am sharing of what I know. My question – Is there a relation between cattle herding and caste system in Nepal? From what I know, there is a definite relation, but I want to know at what extend.

NP! ID: 328008 Title: Nepali cow // File Size: 799 × 526 – 397.95 KB
Created: Wed, 05/09/2007 – 7:16pm // Modified: Wed, 05/09/2007 – 6:19pm
File Type: image (jpeg) // License: Public Domain

Writing something about “Cow” always reminds me of my primary school English teachers, and how we had to write about essays related to cows, mother, green Earth, and Forest in Nepal. My love for education at the moment, justifiably, was improper and poor. My parents were once informed that I would always ne a below average student, and that my English was so poor that I’d need a tuition for it, at a monthly price of Nrs.3500. This was grade three (1993) when my monthly tuition fee was Nrs.1200. Yeah, and the English Teacher was non Nepali, with fluent British-Indian Accent. I do not remember anything else about her, but my guess is that she was from Sikkim, or Darjeeling in India, unmarried and living in Kathmandu at the moment.

A cow (status) in our society

A 2010 blog (here) has made an excellent points on cow-status. Yes its revered, its worshipped, and we cannot kill it, even if its already dying, but not dead yet. When a cow (or few of them) get Mad-Cow-Disease (or any other non infectious or infectious diseases) we cannot kill. At best, we try to quarantine it. Also, there is no culling of this animal. If a cow  herder/s that are smart, however, opt for some shady ways, by which a diseased cow, vanishes the next morning.

According to a Lodi News-Sentinel news story written in the 1960s, in then contemporary Nepal an individual could serve three months in jail for killing a pedestrian, but one year for injuring a cow, and life imprisonment for killing a cow. Seriously, its here. According to Vedic scriptures they are to be treated with the same respect ‘as one’s mother’ because of the milk they provide. They appear in numerous stories from the Puran (English word is Puranas) and Ved (English word is Vedas). The deity Krishna was brought up in a family of cow herders, and given the name Govinda (protector of the cows). In a related cattle worshipping matter, my favorite Hindu diety Shiva is traditionally said to ride on the back of a bull named Nandi. So much is the importance for this one animal species. This got me thinking, was its care taken by elite people in arm, or a normal person.

As one of the jewels in Hinduism, who takes care of it (Cow) ? by elite guards or normal pheasant?

what does cow do?

In South Asian context, its primary use is for milk and milk based dairy product. These days, a dead cow (not killed, I’m just saying a cow can die of natural causes) can also fetch for leather goods. Internationally, meat of a adult cow (also known as beef) is a big hit. Apparently its very high in demand. Global beef production is virtually unchanged at 57.5 million tons (pdf file) in 2012-13, with India as a lead beef exporter (18.53%) as of April of 2012. A very convoluted conclusion, Ironic as one probably should get imprisoned for doing this in countries like India and Nepal. I took this information from a report here. Lastly, there is also cow dung and urine used in some yucky  religious and good economical way.

wait what? India as a lead beef exporter (18.53%) in the world .

Cow dung, or “gobar” is used in very many ways, including as a cooking gas. Well other animal shit (including those from humans) are also used as biogas. Two papers published in 2009, from Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews – Elsevier explain more on the benefit of biogas in Nepal, (Abstract available here and here). I could not afford to read these papers, SciVerse demanded $37.95, but abstract reading sounds promising.  Will not write about the yucky  part, where people touch and revere this fecal matter. Its an animal shit that is being worshiped at. What could be more irksome?

of caste and cows

Back to my primary reason for this post. After a good amount of time spend on Internet and asking around here is what I found about the Methodologically  Implanted Slavery (MIS) and cows.

Turns out, me being a Brahmin (one of the four Varnas in one group of Nepali cohort) am free to be a herder. I can be a cattle farmer. In other news, not so long ago (say 50-60 years), a Brahmin could not be a regular land farmer, that I was not allowed to plow land (neither with buffalo/ox/oxen nor a machine). In a similar respect, Newars in Kathmandu Valley also could not plough a land with bigger plough (called “Halo” or “Hali” in Nepali) and were limited to “Kodalo” (smaller in size). In Kathmandu, this was Newari religion; it was said that Lord Pashupatinath would get angry.

[To make my stance clear, I do not believe Newari Culture originally to be in the same Varnas (meaning particular sect of cultural) where Brahmins, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Sudra were divided.  Newari culture have their own higher and lower caste within them. This is true for Madhesi and the various Mongoloid culture in Nepal also. Each of these culture includes high ranking priests and low ranking untouchables, but somehow only Brahmins (13% of total population) get the blame game of being supreme, smart-a$s. Will write about this very soon.]

past/present?

What was intriguing was who looked after the cattle grazing few decades ago. According to my parents, my father (from South Terai belt in Nepal) tells me that any caste/culture could be a cow herder. There were also no limits in who could milk the cow. Only after the milk was boiled/warmed, were the untouchables not allowed. Yes, it is inhumane. While my mother (from Hills in Western Nepal) tells that milking the cow by lower caste was not allowed in the village she grew up.  But now, with education and human rights campaign, any or all the caste in Nepal, are able to be a cattle farmer, with no limitations. Obviously, there are always some places, which may defy this progress, and still remain obsolete and uneducated.

Why was there discrepancy ?  I have few theories, which might not be true.

  1. I think, that the whole purpose of making “cow” a revered animal was that no one would be able to harm it, be it friend or enemy – it was very useful economical indicator of a well to do rich family.
  2. High priest of most South Asian Culture were not allowed to eat meat. My guess is, early on, someone definitely must have figured out that beef was good meat. In order to stop this, the smart(ass) people, made a god out of this animal; stopped its killing for meat, and used it as a sole purpose of Milk and Dairy products.
  3. But animal it was. It needed someone who could take care. Hence, the very likely, densely populated lower caste were utilized to graze and feed the cows. Now, no-one could kill a cow at all. Killing for beef meat was out of question.
  4. Huge, Fertile and Flat land in Terai (South Nepal) meant bigger cattle herds, which required many farmers. Hence the rules that might have been, were relaxed, till a point where the smart(ass) population could only discriminate after the milk was boiled/warmed/or inside their kitchen. Less land in Hilly region, meant less cattle, and the milking  was kept among those that were “touchable”.

so do I like beef?

No, not till now. I haven’t had beef till date. Its about respecting one’s culture, so I guess I won’t go this path. Although, I know there are a lot of things that my culture needs to improve on. For the record I believe in Asthik, Atheist Hindu. Don’t believe in god, but believe in Hinduism and the religion. Yes, we have this in Hinduism. read more here.

poverty for Nepal – 1.25USD or more?

Nepal is poor. Everyone knows this. How poor? has a convoluted and wary answers from variety of well known and reputed organizations that may and may not represent our government. So when mother and I discussed about the poverty in Nepal few days back, It got me thinking to search for answers. It isn’t black and white, but here is the gist of it.

what is poverty?

Percentage population living on less than $1.25 per day (in 2009)

Poverty is the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the deprivation of basic human needs, which commonly includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Relative poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the location or society in which people live. Now, the World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US$1.25 (PPP) per day, and moderate poverty as less than $2 or $5 a day (definition copied from Wikipedia.)

Although the most severe poverty is in the developing world, there is evidence of poverty in every region. The main poverty line used in the OECD and the European Union is a relative poverty measure based on “economic distance”, a level of income usually set at 60% of the median household income.

what is poverty in Nepal?

As per Wikipedia, the data from 2010 shows that the percent of total population living under the poverty line of 1.25 USD is 24.82 percent and those that live under 2 USD is  57.25 percent of the population. Somehow Nepal is still in post conflict transition, seven years after the ten years civil unrest came to an end. World Bank  page dedicated to Nepal, reports a survey saying Nepal has performed extremely well in reducing poverty as the percentage of poor dropped to 44.2 percent of the population in 2011 from 64.7 percent in 2006  – 4.1 percentage points per year.

The poverty line threshold of $1.25 per day, as set by The World Bank, is controversial. The Economist article from 2008 points out the exact reason, why I do not personally feel comfortable with 1.25$. Basically, its very hard to peg a fixed number in relation to the growing inflation. To counter it, World Bank also has an counter-criticism from January 2010 article here. I do not personally understand economics very well, so my say is

mmm.. $1.25 should be changed may be every year?

but is this only one scale?

Income is just one way to measure poverty, and a particularly tricky (and narrow) way at that – so says Notre Dame economist and National Poverty Center research affiliate, James Sullivan, who believes that to measure poverty strictly by income fails to accurately reflect people’s true economic circumstances.

According to UNDP’s Human Development Index (HDI) 2013, 44% of the population are still under the poverty line. The HDI is based on multidimensional poverty measurement system. The system is an alternative to income-based poverty estimates. The population living in poverty in Nepal is higher compared to other countries in the region with employment to population ratio in Nepal is 86.4%. The report also reveals that child labor in Nepal is relatively higher than other SAARC countries. More than one third of the children between the ages of 5 and 14 are engaged in economic production. A comprehensive Wikipedia report on HDI of the world is available here.

wait what about remittance?

As of 2010, the total remittance value in Nepal is worth around $3.5 billion. In 2009 alone, the remittance contributed to 22% of the nation’s GDP. The Datasheet compiled by World Bank (available here) with Datasheet from the link on Annual remittances inflow (available here). [Accessed on May 12, 2013]. Detail workup on Nepal’s remittance culture is also found here. Newspaper article from Himalayan Times (here) from April 20, 2013 states an increase in global remittance in developing countries by 5.3% to $401 billion in 2012 compared to a year before. India remains largest recipient country in world, receiving almost $70 billion in remittance in 2012. In Nepal’s case, remittance income accounts for a large chunk of it, earned by many hundreds of thousands of largely unskilled Nepali workers.

However, considering aspects like job safety and security of migrants workers, we have no safe bet to say that this is a long term commitment. As an rough estimates, there are about 400 to 500 Nepali cohort leaving this country every week. Most go as migrant workers and some for further education (who somehow don’t return back). As a personal experience, there were about 60 people line outside one particular foreign embassy on May 13, 2013. I also have a picture as a proof, but will withheld the detail information for next blog article.

and about economy?

Nepal as present has an annual growth rate of about 4.6% (estimated 2012) and per capita income of about 1000 USD ($1300 as per CIA World Fact book). The Central Bureau of Statistics has estimated Nepal’s Gross National Income (GNI) at $721 per capita for the current fiscal year. GNI is an important measure of the average standard of living of a country’s people. Out of the SAARC Eight, Nepal ranks with other three countries as LDCs (Least Developed Country). Just throwing out another number here – The unemployment rate in Nepal is about 46% (as per 2008 estimate in CIA World Fact book). In short – Nepal’s economy at the moment is in shambles.

MDG 2015 – One – Eradicate Extreme hunger and poverty. where are we?

— — On Poverty – Target likely to be achieved

The country’s current poverty level, according to Nepal Living Standard Survey III is 25.2 per cent, suggesting that it has been reduced by 5.5 percentage points since 2005. However, the incidence of poverty in rural area (27.2%) is almost double than that of urban areas (15.46%); Far west development region has 45.6% poverty against 21.44% in the eastern regions. Similarly poverty incidence of Dalits is 43% which is four times higher than Newars and Brahman. Remittances are one of the main contributors to poverty reduction, in addition to the significant increment of real wage. Sustained poverty reduction is possible only with higher levels of employment generation through greater investment and growth and private sector is one of the key players. Agriculture should be revived for young people and workers to return from abroad. (copied from UNDP.org)

— — Hunger – Target unlikely to be achieved

for more info on Nepal’s MDG reporting regarding hunger – go here. In short the answer is – NO it won’t make it up for this indicator. For more – download the pdf here. Poverty and hunger are interconnected concepts, and in both fronts Nepal has difficulties to meet MDG goals. As they are multidimensional issues, especially hunger, country’s development in all fronts are essential.

Targets (in case you need numbers this is Nepal’s target)

  • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day
  • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

Indicators (these are the indicators, which tells us if we reach our targets or not)

  • Percentage of Population Below $1 per day (PPP Values) : 17%
  • Percentage of Population Below National Poverty Line : 21%

so what are my poverty indicators?
(personal/perspective)

Well I may be totally wrong here, and my perspective may overshoot my logic to some unknown Olympia, but these are the stuffs I think, decides if your poor or not.

  1. “Gaas-Baas-Kapas”The Nepali saying of Gaas = Food, Baas = Shelter, and Kapas = Clothing. If you don’t have the minimum of these – your poor. Food as in twice a day food to keep you alive. Shelter as in place to keep safe from environment (rain, wind, snow etc) when needed. Clothing as in two pair of clothing to change and wash every three days – for oneself.
  2. Communication – basic talk,  telephone or SMS. Yeah, I know, I am over rating poverty, but I believe communication capability as integral to human society. More than Formal Education, Culture and Health.
  3. Health – Yes, this is in too. Obviously, as a medical professional, I think everyone should be kept healthy within the bounds of a particular population cohort.
  4. Education – Nop, not a socialist here, but poverty has a very deep connection with the uneducated bunch. Hence, to remove poverty, I deeply am for basic education on particular skill development programs and/or generalized education for a minimum years course (like SLC in Nepal – which is till grade ten).
  5. Water and Sanitation – You have poor sanitation, you are poor. bad water also means you are poor. Thats what I think.

lastly, after the above four – Consumption > Income – If you spend more than you earn, then your poor. Seriously. Some good indicators of poverty

  1. Grameen Bank (bank of the poor) – from Muhammad Yunus (Bangladesh) has this poverty indicators. (Available here)
  2. Poverty.org.uk – has a wonderful list also, though this is a bit boring. (Available here) This might not quite add up to represent developing countries like Nepal.

so how poor is Nepal?

very poor. On its own, Nepal cannot or would not be able to develop at fast pace. Given the stance of unknown remittance future, and high brain drain, there is a convoluted prospect of developing Nepal. I do have faith, that given the political stability Nepal can further reduce poverty, but this is a huge faith of leap.

Further Reading

  1. doingbusiness.org report (1) from July 2012 ranks Nepal to be at 108th on a scale from 185 economies. This is better than the regional South Asian Average of 121, with India at 131st and China at 91st. World Bank. 2013. Doing Business 2013: Smarter Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-9615-5. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0
  2. Editorial. Hopeful Sign. The Himalayan Times. Accessed on – May 12, 2013. Web link here.
  3. Human Development Index (HDI) 2013. PDF Document Link.
  4. Cause of Poverty in Nepal. Author – Uma Shankar Prasad.  Published on July 10, 2010. Accessed on May 13, 2013. Available here
  5. What’s the Best Way to Measure Poverty? Income or Consumption? Author – Published September 14, 2011. Accessed on May 12, 2013. Available here.
  6. Rural Poverty in Nepal. Rural Poverty Portal. Accessed May 13, 2013. Available here.