FDR – ministers, crashes, and cuts

A recollection of what has happened in the last seven years since Nepal became Federal Democratic Republic. First of the two part blog series has some facts with some negativity. Part two will be more difficult to write – as the hope is to get a better and brighter picture.

Prime Minister/s

Expectations were high even in 2008. Nepal came together and made history with Federal Democratic Republic country and the new constitutional assembly. Sure, we removed the monarchy in hope to better the political structure that we thought was more akin to feudalism under the then ruler. Introspection reveals a neglect and a disaster. Members of the second Constituent Assembly, elected in November, chose S Koirala of the Nepali Congress (NC) party on February 10 as the fifth prime minister since Nepal held its first democratic elections six years ago. Disclosure – I am inclined towards democracy, neutral towards the old monarchy, and despise the communism

#
Name
(Born-Died)
Term of Office
Political Party
Took Office
Left Office
Days
1 Girija P koirala.jpg Girija P Koirala
(1925–2010)
28 May 2008 18 August 2008 83 Nepali Congress
2 Prachanda 2009.jpg Prachanda
(1954– )
18 August 2008 25 May 2009 280 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (Communist)
3 Madhav Kumar Nepal2.JPG Madhav Kumar Nepal
(1953– )
25 May 2009 6 February 2011 622 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist)
4 J.n (2).jpg Jhala Nath Khanal
(1950– )
6 February 2011 29 August 2011 204 Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist)
5 Baburam Bhattarai.jpg Baburam Bhattarai
(1954– )
29 August 2011 14 March 2013 563 Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (Communist)
6 Khilaraj regmi.jpg Khil Raj Regmi(1949– ) 14 March 2013 11 February 2014 334 Nonpartisan
7 Sushil Koirala.jpg Sushil Koirala
(1939– )(Acting)
11 February 2014 Incumbent 12 Nepali Congress

Source – Wikipedia Article

Seven prime ministers in seven years. Seven head of state, elected (and/or selected) to bring the country out of tragedy and darkness.  GPK was experienced, skillful and capable leader. However, he was inadequate and incompetent for the time, corrupt, greedy, and old.

Koirala ruled the longest as five-time prime minister in the democratic era after 1990, and by that token also made more mistakes than others, besides earning the animosity of the mainstream left which opposed him in Parliament and on the streets. Koirala can take some of the credit for the advances made during the dozen years of democracy till 2002, including the advance of community forestry, press freedom, the FM radio revolution and the brief interlude with local government. He was a true believer in open society. And yet, he was party to the ills that dog us to this day, from energy shortage, static economy and the impunity that has spread like wildfire. Clearly, Koirala was unable to come to grips with the newer challenges beyond pluralism, posed by identity assertion and economic globalisation, among others.

– – Kanak Mani Dixit (The Hindu – March 22, 2010)

The next four prime ministers were from Communist Parties. Though not a big fan, ours is one of the few nations which has the leftist participate and win democratic elections. Among the four PM, it was B Bhattarai from whom the expectations were pretty high. He failed. The remaining three communist leaders are mockery at best. In my personal view, Francis Underwood could learn a lot from PK Dahal on how to lie; and MK Nepal on how to become head of state even after loosing the election (plot line for season 4)

Autumn 2003, I found myself at the same university which shaped up Dr. Babu Ram Bhattarai, the chief Maoist ideologue. Now, popularly known as ‘Laldhwaj’ among his comrades, Babu Ram Bhattarai did his PhD in Urban Planning from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (1986). This famous Leftist bastion drew him to the communist fold despite his earlier fondness for BP Koirala and even GP Koirala. Taking a U-turn from his Nepali Congress leaning in JNU, he wrote a thesis, replete with leftist polemic and revolutionary rhetoric, now available as a book- “The Nature of Underdevelopment and Regional Structure of Nepal: A Marxist Analysis.” He has himself admitted, “I learnt the ABC of Marxism in Delhi’s JNU.”

– – Shrishti RL Rana (Kantipur Online – March 29, 2006)

Then came the chief justice of Nepal, who somehow managed to get the government going for sometime. and now we have a bachelor as prime minister. Nothing against his bachelorhood. Just too many incapable politicians around even in the new CA.

Plane Crash/es

Next on the list is Plane Crashes. Here is a list of accidents and incidents involving commercial and non-commercial [NC] aircraft in Nepal from 2008.

  1. 2008 October 8 – Yeti Airlines Flight 103 De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter crashes 60 nmi (110 km) from Mt Everest, Nepal, killing 18 of 19 people on board.
  2. 2010 August 24 – Agni Air Flight 101, a Dornier Do 228, crashes outside of Kathmandu, Nepal in heavy rain, killing all 14 people on board. 
  3. 2010 December 15 – A Tara Air de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter crashes in the Bilandu Forest near Shreechaur, Okhaldhunga District, Nepal, killing all 22 passengers and crew on board.
  4. 2011 September 25 – Buddha Air Flight 103, a Beechcraft 1900D, crashes in dense fog while attempting to land at Kathmandu Tribhuwan International Airport, killing all 16 passengers and 3 crew members
  5. [NC] 2011 October 18 – Royal Nepal Air Force, a Britten-Norman Islander,  Nepalgunj, performing an ambulance flight from Nepalganj to the capital city Kathmandu with a patient, one accompanist, two doctors, a nurse and a pilot. It crashed in unknown circumstances near Dhorpatan, killing all six occupants.
  6. 2012 May 14 – In the Agni Air Flight CHT, a Dornier Do 228 crashes near Jomsom Airport, Nepal during a go-around; of the 21 on board, 6 survived.
  7. 2012 September 28 – Sita Air Flight 601, a Dornier Do 228, crashes on the bank of the Manohara River, Kathmandu, Nepal after a bird strike, killing all 19 on board
  8. 2013 May 16 – Nepal Airlines Flight 555, a de Havilland Canada DHC-6, overruns the runway on landing at Jomsom Airport, Nepal, injuring seven people
  9. [NC] 2013 May 27 –  Cessna 208B Grand Caravan in Simikot,
  10. [NC] 2013 June 1 – Sita Air Flight – Simikot, Karnali,
  11. 2014 February 16 – Nepal Airlines Flight 183, a de Havilland Canada DHC-6, crashes near Khidim about 40 nautical miles south-west of Pokhara, Nepal, killing all 18 people on board.

Source – Bureau of Aircraft Accident Archive [NC] – non commercial flights

For comparison, India which is around 21 times the size of Nepal, and well with 1 billion+ population had 10 plane crashes from 2008 onwards (till 2014). Next neighbor, China had 7 accidents. Well to be honest, we can exclude the three airplane crashes in Kathmandu, TIA, for being one of the worst air strip for aviation and landing a plane. Still, We have one accident every 8 months. I am horrified to board a plane.

the Middle Class Migration

Before I begin ruining my thoughts of how I miss my friends and family, here is a small excerpts from New York Times, Feb 21, Opinion section. A very strong word – Social Mobility, and how the authors compared wealth and knowledge among the haves and not haves – around the world. Authors talk about Indian (Nepali) society and how our cast system and religion has prevented the social mobility. One question,  is why all the prime ministers in Nepal are from upper class?

When you look across centuries, and at social status broadly measured — not just income and wealth, but also occupation, education and longevity — social mobility is much slower than many of us believe, or want to believe. This is true in Sweden, a social welfare state; England, where industrial capitalism was born; the United States, one of the most heterogeneous societies in history; and India, a fairly new democracy hobbled by the legacy of caste. Capitalism has not led to pervasive, rapid mobility. Nor have democratization, mass public education, the decline of nepotism, redistributive taxation, the emancipation of women, or even, as in China, socialist revolution.

– – Gregory Clark (New York Times – Feb 21)

That said, here is the number of people in last decade (and so on) that have left Nepal and gone out for education for work. Most of them are from Middle Class, Upper Middle and few from the Elite Nepali Society. This probably is not selection bias, on my part, as I could very well not choose my family and friends from a broader group of society hierarchy based on economy. Disclosure – I represent the middle class family in Kathmandu. Coaxed  into more studies and less play – with broad shoulder that could carry a heavy back pack filled with books day-in-and-out.

Family

Four of my first cousins are not in Nepal, gone outside for education. I am not good with extended family (don’t remember them) but seven among all the second cousins I know are outside Nepal.

Friends

School, High School, and then School of Medicine – some of my close friends are outside Nepal pursuing higher educations and/or working with really good future prospects. Some in pursuing medicine, some in public health, and some in everything else, that I cannot understand. We had a small eight boys group in school which represented the small-dull-nerd group (seriously). Five of them are outside Nepal, settled and prospering. High School saw a huge magnitude of friend circle/s, but among the closest friends – 10+ are in USA, few in Europe and Australia. Then unto medical school, we had 45 of us, and around 6 are doing (or will soon) their residency here in USA.

Neighbors

Third on my list is how my friends, family and most of the neighbors have at least one of their family members aboard. I have a small map below, which puts my place in the center, and all the houses that surround the one that I live in. They all have one thing in common, either their daughter is married to someone outside Nepal, or son/daughter is outside Nepal for further education, or the whole family got into DV Lottery.

Migration of Neighbours

Keywords – D = Daughter, S = Son, m = Married, fam = familu, DV = USA DV Lottery,

e = Education, AUS = Australia, w = work

The middle class exodus is in the rise, specially after the 2006/7 pseudo(corrupt)democracy. This being the intellectual herd (personal opinion) Not saying that there aren’t any left in Nepal, but a big portion is going out. I know (hope) they will return one day to help build Nepal a better place. Disclosure – I myself, at the moment am in USA, till the end of April 2014. 

Somehow, I feel that our social culture dictates this. Any parents would want to see their kids grow up into better life. Educate them, and see them work in better position. When the times were difficult, my grandfather migrated from the hilly regions in Nepal to the fertile flat lands in Terai. My father migrated from this fertile agricultural society to the capital Kathmandu for service based economical model. Now I take this progress,  few steps further. Its either sending your kid to a rich, developed nation or coaxing him/her into a respected profession (by time/place)- a doctor, an engineer etc.

Power Cuts ~ the rolling blackouts

Seven years of FDR has done nothing to reduce the Power Cuts. Below is just a small list of power cuts that we had during the peak season of misery. I wanted a more elaborate 12 month graph for seven years, but I couldn’t find any materials on the Internet. I did mail to the NEA asking for the information. Putting this for another post.

  1. 2008 – Mid – February – 16 hours / day – Source – Reuters
  2. 2009 – January 11 – 16 hours / day – Source – Reuters
  3. 2010 – December 28 – 11 hours / day – Source – Ekantipur
  4. 2011 – January 11 – 12 hours / day – Source – Ekantipur
  5. 2012 – January 19 – 12 hours / day  – Source – BBC
  6. 2013 – January 19 – 14 hours / day – Source – Ekantipur
  7. 2014 – January 05 – 12 hours / day – Source – Nepalnews

Interesting Read //

  1. Nepal Logjam (Part 1 of 3): Civil War, Peace – Deal…
  2. The Unlikely Tale of How ARM Came to Rule the World.. 

Technology //

  1. Mobile ApplicationHamro Keyboard is a Nepali keyboard for all of us who love Nepali language. This is still work in progress, however, this looks promising.
  2. Two great news from Mobile World Congress 2014 – – Nokia X family of phones and Firefox OS built phones.
    • Nokia X – Sturdy Smart-phones at reachable Nepali economy.
    • Firefox OS build phones which in partnership with a Chinese Chip company – Spreadtrum Communications – hopes to built a 25 USD smartphones.

 

tea conundrum – बाबु चिया खाने?

As a follow up to my post on comparing the conversation starters  here I write some more on how we get around with tea. The importance of tea in Nepal, or may be, at least in Kathmandu. These are some ideas and facts I’d wanted to share for some time – my personal hausaufgaben (that’s homework in German). On a brighter note – I have a new theme and a fix domain – www.momobites.com.

Tea-Time

I am a tea person and my morning starts with tea. Every day at six, I take my Ideapad laptop to kitchen (or nearby) to read Setopati (Nepali Online news portal) and most of the time, the boiling tea water resonates my feeling concerning Nepal’s political landscape, hot and turbulent. The packaged tea leafs from Nepal will last us three more weeks and by then we hope to get another batch from someone coming from Nepal. Our current batch is from the tea shop near Basantpur Durbar Square. I am not sold with the tea bags found in USA plus with our limited budget we can’t afford a grandeur brand.

As a time limited experience from Charlottesville, Boston and Providence – I guess the tea (or coffee) time is usually personal and to the point. You take caffeine mostly to wake yourself up and feel refreshed. Personally tea time for me is designated by the time of the day, something very prevalent from the sub culture I bring from Nepal. A brief description of my routine in Nepal was as follows.

  • Morning Tea @ Six – no milk and no sugar – – To wake me up
  • Morning Tea II @ Seven – milk and sugar but half the quantity – – Newspaper and news
  • Afternoon Tea @ one – milk and sugar – – lunch time tea (talk time tea)
  • Anything after this – milk and sugar – – guest and talk time tea

Two years ago my team (technically Aditi’s team) spend six months on this research study. Personally, I think this study and the published paper is of national importance which reveals how international friends are manipulating this (Nepal)puppet country in the field of health aid and health related national programs. Those six months however, were the most tea intoxicated time of my life. All the literature study, desk work, planning and in-depth interviews meant a lot of tea (and some coffee). The picture below is of Radheshyam (team member) waiting outside Singha Durbar south gate. We were to take an in-depth interview from one of the high ranking official in Ministry of Finance. He made us wait for two hours. Any guesses on how we spend our time?

Image0071

The Tea shop pub culture

Tea shops in Nepal are akin to the bars and pubs of Europe. People come here to share some progressive ideas, ramble more about politics, and make friends. Most of this require some water, some milk and sugar, a place to sit, and good company. I see it in Chabahil – Ganeshthan near my home every day, with a spike during holidays and weekend. My recent trip to Janakpur this summer for Nidan required me to work in the earliest possible hours. At seven in the morning when the most of the businesses are non functional these tea shops would be open, filled with people. Late last year when our small team reached Taklung after six hours bus ride and 10 km walk on a hot and sunny day we were approached with tea. We begged for cold water.

Tea is part of our culture and I love it. It gives me good feeling of being South Asian and being Nepali. Its one of those culture which I can talk about, humor it, and love it at the same time. Like the most tea cultures around the world, its something that brings people together. Disclosure – There is certainly alcohol culture too, but that usually happens in the evening/night for majority and I may talk about it some other post.

Types of Tea

There is a culture (and many smaller sub-cultures) in Nepal with a cup of tea. Tea time has variations in time, place, quantity and quality. I certainly have few moments of emotional attachments with few of these cups/glasses. From the first cup of tea I made which tasted like strong sour hot water to the first cup with Aditi after she said yes to my proposal. The black tea I drank with Avi and Pradhumna after eight years, in Pokhara and the first morning in home after I got married with family and my newly wed wife. The following are some type of tea I see prevalent in Nepal.

“mitho” tea

Mitho Tea

Image Credit – Veronica (BackPacks and Pumpkins – Blog)

One of those few teas that actually taste good. My mother makes one of these, and so does our new Nepali friends in Charlottesville. You know the one with just the good amount of milk, tea, and sugar. I am not a good fan of masala tea but they taste good.

“pasale” tea

Any one remember the typical tea glass in most of the tea shops in Kathmandu? The glass this lady is holding in the image below. Image from June 2012, article written by Niraj Karki in ECS Nepal. (web link). Good read.

tea_shop

“kaam kaaj” tea

This was one of my favorite during medical school years, and then while working in Kathmandu University School of Medical School – Chaukot. The tea time, was first at around nine thirty in the morning, with a follow up at around two thirty. A fifteen minute chat time with friends and colleagues, with some breads and donuts. Sometimes there would be wai-wai fry. Back during my work in Chaukot in 2010/11 our small tea group talked about politics and bollywood. Our friend, Smrity literally introduced us to Zoom TV during these tea talks.

“gaunle” tea

Most Nepali know this. A long steel glass, filled up to its brim, with tea. A bit thin and light in color; but still has a good punch. Be it the hills, mountains or the Terai flat lands in Nepal, the rural village Nepal – this kind of tea takes 20 minutes, and the steel glass needs to cool for at least five minutes before we are able to take a first sip. Its hot and it fills up the glass. You need a special grip to hold this glass and there is so much effort to take that first sip.

chiyaGlass

“pahuna” tea

One famous tea culture in Nepal. Carrying this from my previous post from last week. Most households in Nepal offer tea to almost all kinds of guests – friends, families or someone who is at the door for say more than 15 minutes. Extending all four seasons, and irrespective of the time of day – a cup of tea, is presented to you, almost everywhere. I have mentioned my Taklung experience above and am sure everyone has their own. Classic Nepali Tea Culture.

“chutti ko” tea

Holidays and day-offs are big everywhere, and tea on these occasions are wonderful delight. Morning tea with some good food like – jerry swari, maalpuwa, khajuri, and few other South Asian sweet snacks are some of my favorites. These are usually morning teas, and they feel great during the months of September-October-November. These being the festival months in Nepal. These are in part the South Nepal food choices, related to my father’s origin, unto which this is highly influenced.

03012010086

As a medical school student, however, holiday tea in Dhulikhel (and Kathmandu) representing the hilly outskirts of Kathmandu meant more like – sel-roti and aalu-chana, with may be, sometime chiura (the beaten rice).  Friday evening sometimes meant beer and some local stuff that mostly gave a big hangover Saturday. The dorm rooms and the respective rest rooms (aka toilets) took a lot of post-binge-throw-ups. We wake up late afternoon, with heavy dehydration and headache, nauseated and thirsty. The weekendnoon-tea after one of these events are usually with no milk, and mostly lemon flavored.

DSC09929

SMALL BITS

Guess what, part of blogging in WordPress allows me some information of my readers. I see when and where my blog appears in internet searches. Guess what appeared when one from Nepal searched the key word – “how to take bike license in nepal by giving bribe” 

In another note, I watched Flash Point Paradox. Waited for few months for this. It was awesome, as expected. For the unknown I am big fan of Flash.

NEXT WEEK – I write about Dashain..

Nepali in USA (a pseudo thought bubble)

My work right now also involves me in meeting Nepali in USA, and then talking/learning about ideas on how to improve the holistic health approach in Nepal. This involves me talking about good examples of health projects in Nepal, and also about my own (Nidan). I talk about environment project, deforestation, occupational health and the main course of Maternal and Child Health. There are different genre of Nepali speaking population and great deal of information gets shared, both to and fro. But this post is not about what I talk, but to whom(?).

What (they) said back home

“Certainly not rumors, but more of an exaggerated facts” were my initial thoughts when I heard about the two classes of Nepali in developed countries. The educated – working group and the non-educated labor group. For a quick disclosure – Nepali migration to this part of the world only increased from late 90s. So as a whole, there are very few numbers in this all.

I was warned by friends and families alike, by not to get into Nepali groups of “Beer-n-Gungis”

Let me explain – FIRST GROUP –  These are not hard facts, but portray a general feature exploration. These are the groups of people who work all week, mostly labor works. Most the work is either in retail shops, gas stations, and beauty parlor/saloon. I do not have any facts or number, but these are the jobs that you hear back home. Kind of makes me think that most are not used to heavy lifting and machine or construction work.  These work may be legal or illegal, but most fall into the grey zone of unknown. Pretty good work ethics, and silent/sober Asian feel which includes soft spoken voice, and not so heavy English (Hindi) Accent. There is a definite Nepali English Accent, which is slightly different then our Southern neighbors, which is also, in my opinion, a bit better (I guess nationality creeps in). Its not thick as Hindi Accent, but it has its own perks of ups and down.

Then they come home, and do nothing. Then comes the weekend, and they do nothing. Their sole purpose of existence is to make a decent living and enjoy this developed nation – literally. May be a little too hard on critics, but these are the population cohort, who, more or less have nothing to gain or loose. Every evening, and most weekends are usually time spend with Beer and Cards (“marriage” anyone). One very distinct feature is the heavy use of white sleeveless shirts (the gungis) and briefs for men. They are very fond of Chicken and even greater a fan of Bacon/Pork meat.

SECOND GROUP – These are the educated bunch. They definitely live a better life. They are the ones who usually graduated in USA, and have families and make their children study like those akin to Chinese and Indian parents. Depending upon the years of stay in here,

  1. 5+ years – unmarried – still studying, is in relationship or about to get married
  2. 7+ year – usually married – has a stable job or doing his/her PHD
  3. 10+ year – usually has 2 kids (i don’t know, but most Nepali in USA, that I know of have two children), a beautiful home, and stable income
  4. 15+ years – Their kid is very good in studies, Family still intact. (The divorce percentage is still very low)

Obviously there are few exception, but this is the general idea I have, from around 20 Nepali origin families I know in USA.But now, with some first hand exposure, here is what I think, I know now. There ought to be one more group – which definitely comes before these two groups.

THIRD GROUP – the students – Yes ! finally the group where I belong to. There were around 9000 Nepali students in USA for the year 2011/12. These are mostly non-medicals students, and have come mostly for undergraduate education. We are the population that might, some day, be Nepal’s executive class of thinkers and policy makers. We represent Nepal’s future. Disclosure –  I do not know what my thought process a year from now will be, but for now, I am certain going back to Nepal, and working my way up to the executive level.

However, this student group has seen a gradual decrease in application for the last two years, as US Embassy back home tightened its Visa process in recent years, which ultimately led to this student group opting more for other developing nations like Australia and West Europe (including England).  For the record, there were around (I guess) 40+ Visa applicant when I applied for US Visa this year on that favorable day in early June, this year.

The Eyeball

One small note – Nepal is almost a fail state – and the whole economy of the country runs through remittance through Nepali migrant labor workers from Middle East and South East Asia. Those so called educated Nepali (including me, maybe) who are in developed world have very (extremely) little share in Nepal’s economy. Nepali in developed world usually do not send in remittance, and/or have very direct/indirect role in Nepal’s economy and development. This is sad. 😦

Not to sound eager and patriotic, but I hope I am able to do something about it. For the readers, I am definitely not in love with Nepal, I just think I need to do some good work for my birth place and family/friends.

Some More Facts

How many Nepali speaking citizens in USA?

A 2010 Census report on Asian Origin Americans reveals that there are around 59,490 Nepali speaking individual in USA with legal citizenship.[9] Significant communities of Nepalese Americans exist in large metropolitan areas such as New York City, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Gainesville, Florida, Portland, Oregon, and Saint Paul, Minnesota.[5]

Nepal and USA

What about legal residence?

A quick web search reveals the number to be around 110,616 through Wikipedia.  But this does not say legal residence or citizens. Lets break it down first to Diversity Visa Program. Applicants registered for the DV-2013 program were selected at random from 7,941,400 qualified entries (12,577,463 with derivatives) received during the 30-day application period. Nope, I did not enter this year, but those who did, 4,370 Nepali getting this opportunity, which included my one distant cousin,  and one very awesome friend from high school years. This number was 3,258 in 2012.

Students? anyone

In the 2011/12 academic year, 9,621 students from Nepal were studying in the United States (down 6.6% from the previous year). Nepal is the eleventh leading place of origin for students coming to the United States. 53.3% are undergraduates, and 29.3% are graduate students.[2,3]

Bhutanese (Nepali) Refugee – in USA

In 1988, the government of Bhutan conducted its first real census exercise. The basis for census citizenship classifications was the 1958 “cut off” year, the year that the local Nepali population had first received Bhutanese citizenship. Those who could not provide proof of residency prior to 1958 were adjudged to be illegal immigrants. Majority fled to India, and significant number arrived to Nepal, as well. During the last 20 years or so, number of refugees in Nepal (more than 69,000 of an original total of 108,000 refugees) have found a durable solution in third countries, thanks to the support of support of resettlement States and Government of Nepal. These resettlement program were started in 2007, and among the eight working under the UNHCR, USA has accepted the largest number of refugees. [4]

I mention the Bhutanese refugee here, as they’d lived in Nepal for almost 20 years, and most have similar Nepali culture/traditions. Legally they have a convoluted presence, however, culturally they are every bit Nepali, and speak Nepali as well.

[quick questions] –  So how many Nepali (from Nepal) got a refugee status (in USA)?

In 2011, there were some 56k admitted to USA as refugee. About approximately three percent were of Nepali origin (seeking refugee/asylum). This is give or take 500 as numbers. Well there are three variation of these refugee status – Affirmative Asylees, Defensive Asylees, and Follow-to-Join Asylees – the scope of which is beyond me, at the moment. For more information, refer to the report by Daniel C. Martin and James E. Yankay from May 2012. [4]

References – 

  1. Nepal DHS 2011 [pdf link]
  2. Open Doors® 2012 – Report on International Educational Exchange [pdf link]

  3. Open Doors Data – Fact Sheets by Country – 2012 – Nepal [pdf link]
  4. Daniel C. Martin and James E. Yankay. Refugees and Asylees: 2011 [May 2012]
  5. Nepalese American – Wikipedia [web link]

  6. Demographics of Nepal – Wikipedia [web link]
  7. Nepal Census – 2011 – [pdf link]
  8. 2013 UNHCR regional operations profile – South Asia Working environment [web link]

  9. The Asian Population : 2010 Census Briefs[web link]

  10. Nepalese Americans – Countries and Their Culture [web link]

NEXT POST – Next Wednesday 🙂